Toto Sudargo, Hamam Hadi, Wiryatun Lestariana, Amitya Kumara
Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Psichology Gadjah University , Indonesia
Introduction and Objective: This study analyzed the effect of egg and iodine supplementation to the cognitive ability and academic achievements of elementary school children suffered from iodine deficiency disorders.
Methods: This study is a true experimental study with randomized controlled trial design. Study population was 8-12 years old elementary school children in Cangkringan District, Sleman. Palpation of thyroid gland was used to screen the children, and further the urinary iodine excretion testing to determined the subject for investigation. To measure the cognitive function, we use culture fair intelligence test (CFIT), Selective Attention (SA), vigilance test (VIG), attention test (WISCC) equality test (WISCS), coding test (WISCK), and academic achievement. Subjects were randomly distributed between two groups to receive iodine and egg or egg only. Iodine, iron, and protein status, and academic achievement data were obtained at baseline and at the finalization of the study.
Result: Iodine and egg supplementation contribute to the 7 points increments of CFIT at the end of the study (p<0.05). This increment did not occur on egg only-supplemented group. Iodine and egg or egg only supplementation significantly increase the SA, VIG, WISCC, WISCS, WISCK score and Indonesian language (p<0.05) but not math (p>0.05). Independent Sample T Test showed that iodine and egg supplementation and egg only supplementation did not show any statistical significance to all the cognitive function. The multivariate analysis with linear regression showed that CFIT is not affected by the effects of supplementation (p> 0.05). It was, however, influenced by nutritional status (Height to Age Z-score) and father’s education level (p<0.05). Furthermore, the difference of VIG and WISCK at the baseline and end of the study was not influenced by supplementation (p<0.05) but by Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) status (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Iodine and egg supplementation increased cognitive ability and cognitive function of school children suffered from IDD.