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Sociodemography Factors and Dietary Intake on Cognitive Function among The School Childrens in Goiter Endemic Area

Toto Sudargo1, Hamam Hadi1, Wiryatun Lestariana1, Amitya Kumara2, Lia Asti Sugiyanti3, Sylvia Afrilyanisa Permatasari3

Background : It is estimated that around 42 million people in Indonesia stay in low iodine place. Children with iodine deficiency disorders who live in iodine deficiency endemic area have greater risk in other types of nutrient deficiency and lower achievement of IQ score. On the other hand, research in developing country put greater emphasis on health factor as determinant of child cognitive development rather than sosiodemography factor.Objective : To figure out the correlation between nutritional status, intake of nutrients and sociodemography factors with cognitive function among school aged children in iodine deficiency place in Kismantoro Subdistrict Wonogiri Region.

Methods : Cross-sectional data on nutritional status, intake of nutrients and sociodemography factors were gathered from 173 children aged 8-13 years who lived in Iodine Deficiency (IDD) area. Research subjects were chosen by using simple random sampling method. Sociodemography data were gathered by using questionnaire for the parents. Intake of nutrients were assessed by 3 days of 24 hours food recall method. Cognitive function intelligence ware estimated by CFIT (Culture Fair Intelligence Test) and school achievements data were taken from standardized tests of math and Indonesian language. Every parent from The research subjects had to sign in an Informed Consent before permitting their children to take part in this research.

Results : From 675 elementary school children that use measured by palpation, there were 173 of them (25,63%) suffered from IDD. Bivariat analysis show significant correlation parents level of education with cognitive function (p<0,01). Subject with uneducated mother had risk 5,132 times higher than subject with educated mother, while subject with low educated father had risk 4,721 times higher chance of having low cognitive function compare to around to this area. Energy intake, protein, iodine, and vitamin C had significant correlation with IQ score of children (p<0,05). Meanwhile, Fe, selenium, and zinc had no significant correlation with IQ score of children (p>0,05). IQ was affected by other factors which were not evaluated in this research.

Conclusions : Level of education among parents have a great impact on children’s cognitive function. Therefore, parents should attain higher formal education level that can lead children to the normal cognitive function. Energy intake, protein, iodine, and vitamin C have significant correlation with cognitive function

Key words : sociodemography, cognitive function, dietary intake

1) Faculty of Medicine Gadjah Mada University, Jogjakarta, Indonesia.
2)Faculty of Psychology Gadjah Mada University, Jogjakarta, Indonesia
3) School of Health Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Jogjakarta, Indonesia.

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